India’s climate is dominated by strong, often violent winds that change direction with the season. These winds, known as monsoons, blow from cold to warm regions because cold air takes up more space than warm air. So, monsoons blow from the land toward the sea in winter and from the sea toward the land in the summer.
India’s winters are warm and dry. The monsoon winds blow from the northeast and carry little moisture. India’s winters are warm because the Himalayan mountains form a barrier that prevents cold air from passing onto the subcontinent. Additionally, most of India lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the equator, so the sun’s rays shine directly on the land.
Spring on the subcontinent is extremely hot, with daytime temperatures rising above 100oF in April, May, and June.
In the middle of June, summer monsoons roar onto the subcontinent from the southwest. The winds carry moisture from the Indian Ocean and bring heavy rains until the end of September. The torrential rainstorms often cause violent landslides. Monsoon rains have often swept away entire villages.